Volume 2, Issue 1, Winter 2023

Measuring the Concentration of Plasma "Lipid Profile and Iron" in Al-Mustaqbal University College Smokers

Qusay Azeez Hasan; Sabrean Jawad; Aliaa Kareem Abdulla; Qassim A. Zigam; Hasanain Kamil Hasan Owadh

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2023, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2023.5911.1022

In developed countries, the biggest factor leading to death is cigarette smok- ing, where smoking causes cancers, congestive heart diseases, pulmonary diseases, and other diseases. This study was conducted at Al-Mustaqbal University College - Hilla - Iraq, to evaluate the effect of smoking types on lipid profile (triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and iron. The study included 24 samples of males and the study targeted three groups: the control group (group 1= 7) without smoking, regular cigarette R.C (group 2= 8) smokers of regular cigarettes, and the last group 3 (elec- tron cigarette E.C) comprised of 9 samples (people who smoke electronic cigarettes). The samples studied were of a similar age group ranging from 19 to 30 years. The levels of triglycerides and cholesterol were observed to increase in group 2 compared to the control group. The level of HDL increased in group R.C. by comparing it with the control group, while the iron level increased in group E.C. in comparison to both the groups (control and R.C).
The results showed that the use of electronic cigarettes E.C. was less severe than regular cigarettes R.C., while both had high marks compared to the control group.

Novel SNPs of TNF-a and IL-6 that Regulate Serum Level in Obese Patients

Hadeel Abdulhadi Omear

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2023, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 7-20
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2023.6398.1025

Background Obesity is an abnormal amount of fats in the body that can result from several factors majorly including environmental and genetic fac- tors. The worldwide prevalence of obesity has increased tremendously in the last three decades and is now considered a global epidemic. Despite the negative impacts of obesity on human health and its majorly associated risk factors such as heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancers, no effective strategies have been employed to bring down its rate which can reach an alarming level in the next few years.
Objective Previously, various studies have reported the high serum concentrations of two cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in obese patients. These genes (TNF-α and IL-6) are released from the adipose tissues stimulated by obesity. Considering their pivotal association with obesity, this study has been designed to investigate the relationship between SNPs of TNF-α and IL-6 and their high serum lev- els in obesity.
Results Here, we utilized R language to perform statistical analyses such as correlation, normality testing, ROC, and regression analysis on serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 between obese and control groups. Furthermore, the frequencies of clinical data and Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium tests for allele and the genotypes analysis of the cytokines were performed. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly correlated with obesity SNPs.

Some Trace Elements and Oxidative Stress Status in Patients with Chronic Rheumatoid Arthritis

Noor Kamil Abd Alameer; Haider Abd Jabbar Alammar

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2023, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 21-27
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2023.6412.1026

Background Rheumatoid arthritis (R.A.) is a complex polygenic, au- toimmune inflammatory disease. It was disturbing that almost 1-2% of people depended on that geographic spreading worldwide. R.A. can result from the interaction of genetic, environmental, and autoimmunity. It is characterized by non-organ-specific self-reactive antibody production and chronic synovitis leading to the damage of cartilage and bone. Objectives To evaluate the sera of trace elements and oxidative stress levels in patients detected with chronic rheumatoid arthritis. Determination of some trace elements such as copper, zinc, and iron in the sera of patients.
Patients and Method A case-control study was done on the Iraqi population from Al-Najaf, an Iraqi city. Blood samples were collected from 135 volunteers from September 2021 to February 2022 from Al-Sadder Medical City (Al-Najaf). The 180 volunteers in our study were divided into two groups patient group consisting of 90 individuals ages range: (20–70 years), male and female, and a control group consisting of 45 individuals. Blood was drawn from the patients to measure the copper, zinc, and iron concentration level using the Colorimetric method technique.
Results The average zinc concentration was lower in the patient’s group than in the reference category. The average copper concentration was more significant in the patient’s group than in the reference category. In addi- tion, the average Zn/Cu ratio was lower in the patient’s group compared to the reference category. There was no statistical variation in average serum iron between patients and the reference category. However, the average Zn/Fe ratio was lower in the patient’s group compared to the reference category control group.
Conclusion Lower levels of zinc and a higher level of copper suggest a role for those trace elements on that pathogen of R.A.

Role of Routine Markers in the Diagnosis of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

Haider Ali Laibi; Abdulkareem M. Jewad; Mohammed Mahdi Salih

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2023, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 28-35
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2023.6532.1027

Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease CKD cause different GFR declines (AKI). A gradual, irreversible decline in GFR is a CKD symptom. Diseases impair the kidneys’ ability to concentrate or dilute tubular filtrate, eliminate nitrogenous waste, and maintain acid-base balance. Acute kidney failure (AKF) is a sudden, reversible renal function loss requiring RRT. Chronic kid- ney disease has a 13.4% global prevalence and 1.2 million annual deaths.
The Aim Serum creatinine, urea, potassium, chloride, calcium, sodium, and serum uric acid in CKD patients and healthy controls, and how these indicators vary with CKD development.
Determination of some trace elements such as copper, zinc, and iron in the sera of patients.
Materials and Methods The study included (30 healthy participants) and (60) patients with CKD (control). The participants in this study were people who traveled to Basrah Teaching Hospital aged 25 to 65. From Octo- ber 2020 to February 2021, specialized physicians examined each participant in this study at Basrah Teaching Hospital. Serum potassium, sodium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, urea, uric acid, and serum creatinine were measured using kits.
Results The current study results have shown a signif- icant increase (P < 0.01) in the following biomarkers in CKD patients: serum creatinine, urea, phosphorus, chlo- ride, uric acid, and Cystatin-C. The results also showed a significant decrease in levels following biomarkers in CKD patients: serum calcium and sodium.
Conclusion Chronic renal disease raises serum creati- nine, urea, potassium, chloride, and uric acid. Chronic renal disease patients had lower calcium and sodium levels.

Correlation of N-terminal fragments of Atrial Natriuretic Neuropeptides (NT-ProANP) with Left Ventricle Ejection Fraction in Cases with Acute Myocardial Infarction

Ali Jihad Hemid Al-Athari

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2023, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 36-41
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2023.6575.1028

Background This study aimed to assess the correlation of natriuretic neuropeptides (NT-ProANP) with the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in patients with acute myocardial (AMI).
Materials and Methods This case-control study composed of 120 pa- tients was recruited from the cardiac center in Babylon, Iraq. The plasma levels of NT-ProANP and echocardiographic measure of the left ventricle ejection fraction percentage (LVEF%) for both patients and controls as well as demographic data were taken.
Results The mean ages were 61.9 ± 13.2 and 33.1 ± 8.3 years for pa- tients and control, respectively, 80.8% of the candidates were male. The differences in NT-ProANP serum levels between AMI patients and con- trols were highly significant p-0.001. There was a good diagnostic ability of NT-ProANP to predict patients with AMI from the healthy subjects by ROC-curve analysis: AUC=0.957, sensitivity=0.961, specificity=0.962, 95%CI=0.927 – 0.987, and p>0.05. Whereas, there was a poor diagnostic performance of NT-ProANP to predict LVEF%: AUC=0.438, sensitiv- ity=0.438, specificity=0.519, 95%CI=0.285 – 0.598, and p>0.05. Serum concentrations of NT-ProANP showed no significant correlation with the measures of left ventricular EF%, age, and BMI among AMI patients. The serum levels of NT-ProANP revealed no significant variations between AMI patients with low and those with preserved LV functions
Conclusion The study suggests that the measurement of NT-ProANP was not correlated to LVEF%, although its levels were significantly higher among patients with AMI compared to the healthy controls.