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Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry (JBB) is a global scientific and open access journal. It was established in 2022 and publishes three issues annually. The journal accepts original and reviews articles. Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY). All the manuscripts are Double-blind peer-reviewed for scientific quality and acceptance.   Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry (JBB) is a medium for global academics to exchange and disseminate their knowledge as well as the latest discoveries and advances . Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry...
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Study of the Bacterial Sensitivity to different Antibiotics which are isolated from patients with UTI using Kirby-Bauer Method

Yousif Sinan Alhamadani; Aamir Oudah

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.19387

Background: The Aim of the study was to determine the sensitivity of different types of bacteria to 30 different types of antibiotics by using Kirby-Bauer Method.
Methods: The study was conducted in December 2021 and January 2022, in Al-Samawah city. Where the study was conducted on 33 patients from both genders suffering from urinary tract infection, urine samples were collected using (First morning specimen), Where the chemical tests were carried out before the process of urine culturing by using petri dishes than bacterial species were isolated and their sensitivity to different antibiotics was determined.
Results: Staphylococcus aureus showed sensitivity to different antibiotics where the most effective antibiotic were Imipenem (100%). E. coli showed sensitivity to Amikacin, Imipenem and Meropenem by (100%). For Proteus mirabilis the most effective antibiotics were Amikacin, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Imipenem and Meropenem by (100%). For Streptococcus pyogenes the most effective antibiotics were Amikacin, Ciproflaxcine, Doxycycline, Imipenem, Meropenem, Norfloxacin, Rifampicin, Levofloxacin and Tetracycline (100%) and for Staphylococcus epidermidi were Cefepime, Norfloxacin, Nitrofurantoin, Piperacillin, Rifampicin, Gentamycin, Trimethoprim, Tobramycin and Levofloxacin (100%) and for Enterococcus faecalis were Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Imipenem, Rifampicin and Meropenem (100%).
Conclusions: The current study shows Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli to be the most common pathogens in our study, with very high antibiotic sensitivities to Amikacin, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Imipenem and Meropenem and according to the C&S results.

The use of collagen type-II as an indicator for assessment regeneration effect post intra-articular pure-PRP injection in KOA patient

Ajil A. Alzamily; Waleed M. Jifeel

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 7-14
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.19388

Background: knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a complex disease that causes metabolic, structural, biochemical, and functional alterations in afflicted tissues. Physical examination and radiological findings are the present methods for the diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis. Traditionally, KOA medication focused on symptom management. Clinical trials focused on delaying or reversing disease development have gained popularity in recent years. PRP is among the medicinal approaches used to manage KOA.Purpose: By assessing the cartilage degradation marker collagen-II, the study's aim was to figure out whether the use of pure-PRP may help KOA patients' damaged cartilage layers regenerate.
Methods: This non-randomized controlled trial study involved 66 patients with knee OA and 28 healthy control subjects from December 2021 to February 2022. There were 2 categories of knee OA patients: 34 with moderate (grade-3) and 32 with mild (grade-2) KOA. So, every group of KOA patients is divided into three subgroups based to the frequency of injections (single, double, or triple) in addition to severity. Based on clinical and radiological data using the Kellgren-Lawence (KL) 0–4 grading system, the patients' diagnoses and classifications are made. This study was designed at AL-Imam Ali hospital, Babylon governorate, Iraq and approved by the medical human research ethics committee at Al-Qadisiyah university/ collage of medicine.
Results: The findings of this investigation show that the serum collagen type-II content was considerably greater in KOA patients were compared to control subjects, and in moderate compared to mild KOA as the severity of the disease progressed. But following pure-PRP injection, the serum level of collagen type-II did not significantly decrease, and increasing the number of injections had no better effect.
Conclusions: PRP therapy was generally acceptable for patients in terms of improving symptoms and there were no complications following injection. However, there is insufficient indication that platelet rich plasma regenerates cartilage damage in knee OA patients, as there was no significant decrease in the amount of collagen type-II.

Evaluation of some cardiac markers in relation to COVID-19 mRNA vaccine

Buthainah Al-Azzawi; Ahmed Kareem AL-Eqabi

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 15-24
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.19395

Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a dangerous cardiovascular illness that has a significant impact on people's health. Several biomarkers, including Myoglobin and troponin I (cTnI) were utilized to diagnose AMI in recent decades. The Troponin I (cTnI) was designated as the "gold standard" cardiac biomarker for the prediction of cardiomyopathy. It's a heart muscle regulating protein found on normal myocyte actin filaments. When cardiac muscles are injured, cTnI, one of the main subunits of the cardiac troponin complex, is released into the circulation (e.g., myocardial infarction). Myoglobin denoted by (symbols Mb and MB) seems to be an iron- and o2-binding protein present in the vertebrate heart and skeletal muscle tissues and, more specifically, nearly all mammals. In humans, MB is only present in the bloodstream following muscle damage. Its primary function is to supply myocytes with oxygen. Also essential to nitric oxide hemostasis was myoglobin. Additionally, it facilitates the detoxification of response oxygen molecules from the body. MB is accountable for most vertebrate muscles' red hue.The aim: To assess the difference in the level of (MYOGLOBIN and TROPONIN_I) between patients with and without mRNA Vaccination.
Methods: This study included 125 patients (65 male and 60 female) with vaccinated and non-vaccinated covid-19 with an age range of 20–69 years. These patients are divided into two main groups: 1. vaccinated (vaccinated with COVID-19 infection, vaccinated without COVID-19 disease, vaccinated recovered from the CoV-19 virus),2. unvaccinated (infected with the CoV-19 virus and non-vaccinated, recovered from covid-19 and unvaccinated). The outcome is measured using the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. This study was conducted during the period from November 2021 to May 2022 at the Martyr Dr. Fairouz General Hospital, Wasit governorate, Iraq.
Results: Estimation of serum Troponin I and Myoglobin concentration showed that concentrations of Troponin I and Myoglobin were significantly higher (P<0.0001) in individuals infected with CoV-19 virus and unvaccinated higher than vaccinated with CoV-19 disease indicating the impact of the vaccine on the increment of both markers. However, the level of each marker was substantially higher (P<0.0001) in vaccinated with CoV-19 infection more than vaccinated without or recovered from COVID-19 illness.
Conclusions: The use of mRNA CoV-19 vaccination significantly modulate the increment of Troponin I and Myoglobin and improves the cardiac symptomatology in patients with CoV-19 infection.

The Significant Relationship between A Prostatitis and A High Level of Glycated hemoglobin in Non-Insulin dependent Diabetes Mellitus in AL-Diwaniah Province

Aqeel kareem; Ali Hadi Sabhan

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 25-28
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.5455.1007

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) on the serum level of prostatespecific antigen.
Background: Prostatitis is an inflammation of prostate gland ; several kinds chronic (nonbacterial) prostatitis and sever(chronic) bacterial prostatitis, pelvic pain syndrome. Glycated Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been widely recognized as a biomarker predictor for the severity of Diabetes Mellitus(DM). Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) is a pivotal biomarker reflecting both fasting and postprandial plasma glucose concentration over the preceding 120 days. Increasing epidemiologic evidence suggests that diabetes and associated hyperglycemia and
insulin resistance significantly increase the risks of BPH and LUTS.
Method: A total of 175 blood samples were tested for Glycated hemoglobin with high R.B. Sugar and PSA level.(HbA1c )might have been quantified by (I Chroma 11 and ELISA).
Results: One Hundred Seventy Five patients aged( 22 – 70 ± 10 years) with Type 2 DM, were studied who have signs of prostatitis inflammation ,100 under study and 75 control group.
Conclusion: A significant association between poor glycemic
control and high PSA level of prostatitis among diabetic patients
understudy.

Estimation of some Bioactive substances and Antibacterial activity of Zingiber officinale (Ginger) Extract

Shahbaa M. Al-khazraji; Madeha H. Hossain; Ali S. Hassoon

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 29-33
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.5544.1017

The methalonic and equeous extracts of ginger were employed in this investigation for antibacterial activity against both gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus). Agar disk diffusion was used to assess growth inhibition. The two extracts had clear antibacterial action against the microorganisms tested. In the growth of tested bacteria, the methalonic extract outperformed the equeous extract. The maximum zone of inhibition of methalonic extract in the development of S. aureus (16 mm) and the lowest zone of inhibition in the growth of E. coli (13 mm). The impact of equeous extract on the growth of two bacteria ranged between 10 mm in E. coli and 14 mm in S. aureus. Two extracts' antibacterial activity was compared to that of Gentamicin, a popular antibiotic (20 mm).

Assessment of Fatigue among Patients with Cancer at Euphrates Cancer Hospital

Zainab Hamed Abdel-Hussein; Fatima Wanas Khdair; Ali Al-fahhan

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 34-40
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.5278.1002

Background: Fatigue is a condition characterized by a subjective feeling of a decrease in energy, and it has both physical and psychological aspects. Many authors have pointed out the overlap between fatigue and depression.
Methods: A Descriptive correlational Design is used to study the relationships between the variables and how such relationships are analyzed to assess the research objectives. The study is conducted throughout the period of October 20 th 2021 to 15st June 2022. A Non-Probability (Purposive Sample) of (250) cancer patients, those who visited Al-Euphrates Cancer Hospital/ Al-Najaf/Chemotherapy and hormonal ,Radiation ,Surgery for treatment or follow up or both, are included in the study sample.The data are collected through the utilization
of the developed questionnaire by using an interview technique after the estimation of the validity and reliability of the study instrument.
Result: the overall assessment was (high) for the domains (physical fatigue) and (moderate) for the domain (mental fatigue). The overall assessment of fatigue is also (moderate). In addition, other variables were studied and the study found a significant relationship between educational level, the monthly income/IQ, occupation, residence, cancer type on the patient’s fatigue. Conclusion: Overall the patients with cancer exhibited
a high percentage of physical fatigue and a moderate percentage of mental fatigue. In addition, other variables were studied and the study found a significant relationship between educational level, the monthly income/IQ, occupation, residence, cancer type on the patient’s fatigue.

EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF EPIDURAL STEROID INJECTION ON INTERLEUKIN -18 IN PATIENTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN

Zainab R. Alqaseer; Ajil A. Alzamily

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, In Press
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.20106

Back ground: Having lower back discomfort is common. Back tension may cause sciatica. Low back, or lumbar region, begins below the ribs. Most people will have low back discomfort. Disk damage, structural issues, and atherosclerosis also contribute. Rest, physical therapy, and medicine relieve pain. Weight management and exercise reduce low back pain risk. Epidural steroids alleviate leg and back pain (ESIs). Their extensive history makes them a good nonsurgical sciatica and back pain treatment. ESI may relieve radiculopathy.Human interleukin-18 (IL18) is an interferon-gamma-inducing factor.
The Aim: The study was designed to evaluate the effect of epidural steroid injection on the concentrations of IL-18 in patients with LBP
Materials and Methods: Serum Interleukin-18 was measured using Elabscience® kits. In a case-control study, 36 healthy people (23 males and 13 females) and 22 LBP patients (13 men and 9 women). Our research included 30 to 79-year-olds. All patients in this research were diagnosed by specialists based on their histories and clinical features. A patient's file includes ages, genders, family history, ailments (such as diabetes and hypertension), medicines, weight, height, and BMI (BMI).
Results: Interleukin-18 (IL-18) was substantially greater in patients with LBP than following injection and control Our investigation found a very significant difference (p-value < 0.0001).
Conclusion: Epidural steroid treatment positively impacts LBP patients by decreasing IL-18 levels, which could be played an essential role in repairing damaged tissues.
Keyword interleukin-18 (IL18), Low back pain (LBP) ,lumbar radicular pain (LRP), Epidural steroid

Evaluation of the effect of injectionsof both platelet-rich plasma and hyaluronic acid in patients with earlyknee osteoarthritis via the concentration of interleukin-1β in serum

Ajil A. Alzamily; Ali K. Albdeery

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, In Press
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.20103

Early knee osteoarthritis, which causes the degeneration of articular cartilage and subchondral bone, is a disease that worsens with time and is a major contributor to physical disability. Several inflammatory cytokines released by chondrocytes work in concert to trigger the production of enzymes that break down cartilage. A pro-inflammatory cytokine called interleukin-1β (IL-1β ) accelerates cartilage breakdown after trauma, reduces matrix production, and results in chondrocyte death. Dendritic cells and macrophages are the main sources of IL-1β. On the other hand, osteoblasts, periodontal ligament cells, and gingival fibroblasts have the ability to release IL-1β.Treatment pure- platelet rich plasma (P-PRP) effectiveness of transforming growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, type I insulin-like growth factor, and the vascular endothelial growth factor is thought to be related to their release. Because of their capacity to increase matrix formation, growth factors have been widely researched for OA and cartilage regeneration. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a glycosaminoglycan polymer composed of N-acetyl glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid disaccharide molecules.
Materials and Methods: Elabscience kits were used to assess the serum IL-1β level. The experimental investigation included 18 control groups, 10 HA injections, and 21 pure PRP injections. age ranged from 30 to 80. The study was excluded all individuals with advanced osteoarthritis in the knee, COVID-19, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. the time frame running from November 2021 until June 2022. Other variables in our research were age, gender, family history, use of antihypertensive medications or medications for other disorders, and body mass index (BMI).
Results: The findings of this study demonstrate elevatedIL-1β levels in patients with early KOA before treatments injection compared with the healthy control. After treatments injection, the level ofIL-1β was decreased compared with before injection.
Conclusions: IL-1β could be one of the prognostic signs of early KOA.

INTERLEUKIN-4 ENHANCES THE PRODUCTION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY MACROPHAGES THAT INHIBITS THE GROWTH OF OSTEOCLASTS TO IMPROVE KNEE FUNCTIONALITY

Ajil A. Alzamily; Haider Ali Yousif; Ihsan Abdulabbas Alsalman

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, In Press
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.20104

Background:Knee osteoarthritis is a common disease for many people in many countries, especially those who have an unbalanced and unhealthy lifestyle, where they suffer from pain and difficulty in movement. Given that treatments and medicines generally have side effects, it was possible to search for an alternative treatment that is safer and it has the greatest effect. Platelet-rich plasma therapy is an important and useful treatment by injecting it locally into the knee joint, which allows for repairing the damage in the joint and rebuilding it at the level of the microenvironment. Significant disappearance of symptoms the innate immune system stimulates interleukin-4, an anti-inflammatory cytokine secreted by the body in response to the inflammation that occurs in the affected area of the body, where it works to stimulate the repair of damage.
Patients and procedure:Serum IL-4 level was estimated by using ELISA kitsin period time from November 2021 to June 2022. The experimental study comprise of 62 participants (n=62); A 21 pure-PRP injections, A 11 Leukocyte-PRP injections, and a30 control groups.The age of patients and control were ranged from 35- 75 years old. All patients with diabetes, autoimmune disease, and severe knee osteoarthritis were excluded from this study. Our study assessed other factors such as ages, sex, family inheritance, and body mass index (BMI). The level of IL-4 was measured in the serum before and aftersix weeks ofinjection.
Results: The results of this experiment point to a certain amount of serum IL-4 concentration following the administration of Pure-PRP and L-rich-PRP respectively. Statistically significant decrease in serum IL-4 levels after injection compared to before injection.
Conclusions: In conclusion, IL-4 levels in the blood of people with knee OA were much higher than those of healthy people by a large amount.

Estimation of some Essential oils and study Antibacterial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis Extract

Shahbaa M. Al-khazraji; Madeha H. Hossain; Aii S. Hassoon

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, In Press
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.20108

The study was done to look into the antibacterial activity of equeous and methalonic extracts of the Rosmarinus officinalis leaves on the growth repression of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in vitro. The disc diffusion method was employed to determine the susceptibility of the bacteria tested to the two rosemary extracts. In order to compare the activity of two extracts, gentamicin (300 mg/ml) was used as a positive control. The results demonstrated that the two extracts exhibit antibacterial efficacy in inhibiting the development of tested microorganisms. In examined bacteria, the methalonic extract inhibited growth more than the equeous extract, and S. aureus was more susceptible to the action of the two extracts than E. coli.

Dendrimer as a Recent Drug Delivery System: An Overview

Ghada Hamid Naji; Noor Yousif Fareed; Worood Hameed Al-Zheery

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, In Press
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.20109

Dendrimers, their production, characterization, and use in drug delivery are briefly covered in this article. Dendrimers are radially symmetric, nanoscale molecules with well-defined, homogenous, and monodisperse structures that have an inner core and an outer shell that are classically symmetric. Dendrimers have a unique potential for encasing or entrapping bioactive substances because of their tree-like structure. As a result, they could win a prestigious statue in the fields of pharmaceutical, medical, and nutraceutical sciences. Numerous advantageous biological characteristics exist in them, including polyvalency, sself-assembly, electrostatic interactions, best chemical stability, and minimal cell toxicity. While problems with solubility, stability, and bioavailability are limiting concerns for their implementation.

Study of the Bacterial Sensitivity to different Antibiotics which are isolated from patients with UTI using Kirby-Bauer Method

Yousif Sinan Alhamadani; Aamir Oudah

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.19387

Background: The Aim of the study was to determine the sensitivity of different types of bacteria to 30 different types of antibiotics by using Kirby-Bauer Method.
Methods: The study was conducted in December 2021 and January 2022, in Al-Samawah city. Where the study was conducted on 33 patients from both genders suffering from urinary tract infection, urine samples were collected using (First morning specimen), Where the chemical tests were carried out before the process of urine culturing by using petri dishes than bacterial species were isolated and their sensitivity to different antibiotics was determined.
Results: Staphylococcus aureus showed sensitivity to different antibiotics where the most effective antibiotic were Imipenem (100%). E. coli showed sensitivity to Amikacin, Imipenem and Meropenem by (100%). For Proteus mirabilis the most effective antibiotics were Amikacin, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Imipenem and Meropenem by (100%). For Streptococcus pyogenes the most effective antibiotics were Amikacin, Ciproflaxcine, Doxycycline, Imipenem, Meropenem, Norfloxacin, Rifampicin, Levofloxacin and Tetracycline (100%) and for Staphylococcus epidermidi were Cefepime, Norfloxacin, Nitrofurantoin, Piperacillin, Rifampicin, Gentamycin, Trimethoprim, Tobramycin and Levofloxacin (100%) and for Enterococcus faecalis were Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Imipenem, Rifampicin and Meropenem (100%).
Conclusions: The current study shows Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli to be the most common pathogens in our study, with very high antibiotic sensitivities to Amikacin, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Imipenem and Meropenem and according to the C&S results.

Related Pathological and Social Factors that Delay Early Detection of Breast Cancer among Females

Asmaa Tarek Kadhim Al-Hakak; Halah Basim Jawad Mohammed

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.17158

The current study aimed at assessing the factors that hinder early detection of breast cancer among women, and to identify the association between socio-demographic characteristics and women's knowledge about ways of early detection and causes for delay in seeking medical help.

Methodology: A descriptive design/correlation study is used throughout the present study. A Non-Probability (Purposive Sample) of (150) women with third and more stages of breast cancer (advanced breast cancer) was selected. The data are collected through the utilization of the developed questionnaire by using an interview technique after the estimation of the validity and reliability of the study instrument.

Results: the correlation between overall women's knowledge about ways of early detection and their demographic data, shows that overall women's knowledge has a significant positive correlation with each of age, family history of breast cancer, and level of education. The result also indicates that the correlation between causes for delay in seeking medical intervention and women demographic data. It shows that there is a significant positive correlation with each of residence and family history of breast cancer and most patients are delayed in seeking medicine because of lack of awareness and financial problems.

Conclusion: The study concluded that the general assessment is moderate knowledge about early detection of breast cancer among women, and found a significant relationship between family history and residence with knowledge of patient while there is no correlation with other demographic data.

Secondary Metabolism Compounds Study of Essential Oils for the Mentha spicata L. and Ocimum basilicum L.

Raghad Khalil Alarkwazi; Gasaq Reaihd Abdulreda; Ali Salam Ali

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 31-37
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.18906

Background: The mint and basil plants (M. spicata L. and O. basilicum L.) of the labiate family were used in the study.
 
Methods: A qualitative chemical detection regarding several active chemicals in the leaves of M. spicata L. and O. basilicum L. was part of the investigation.
 
Results: The findings revealed that both species include flavonoids and glycosides, yet tannins and saponins were not found in the leaves extract of O. basilicum, and volatile oils were found in the alcoholic extract at a rate of 4.5% in the leaves of O. basilicum. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) was used to detect six chemical active groups include (O-H, C=H, C=C, C=N, C-O, C-N). Our findings revealed the presence of alkaloid; the extraction yield for volatile oils in M. spicata species is 3%. As for the presence of nutrients in the type, the highest percentage of Calcium is in species O. basilicum.
 
Conclusions: The presence of effective chemical compounds in O. basilicum and M. spicata leaves indicates its importance as a source of useful drugs and the importance of chemical components in the pharmaceutical industries, as well as enhancing the importance of its use in folk medicine as a safe treatment for many diseases.

Evaluation of some cardiac markers in relation to COVID-19 mRNA vaccine

Buthainah Al-Azzawi; Ahmed Kareem AL-Eqabi

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 15-24
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.19395

Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a dangerous cardiovascular illness that has a significant impact on people's health. Several biomarkers, including Myoglobin and troponin I (cTnI) were utilized to diagnose AMI in recent decades. The Troponin I (cTnI) was designated as the "gold standard" cardiac biomarker for the prediction of cardiomyopathy. It's a heart muscle regulating protein found on normal myocyte actin filaments. When cardiac muscles are injured, cTnI, one of the main subunits of the cardiac troponin complex, is released into the circulation (e.g., myocardial infarction). Myoglobin denoted by (symbols Mb and MB) seems to be an iron- and o2-binding protein present in the vertebrate heart and skeletal muscle tissues and, more specifically, nearly all mammals. In humans, MB is only present in the bloodstream following muscle damage. Its primary function is to supply myocytes with oxygen. Also essential to nitric oxide hemostasis was myoglobin. Additionally, it facilitates the detoxification of response oxygen molecules from the body. MB is accountable for most vertebrate muscles' red hue.The aim: To assess the difference in the level of (MYOGLOBIN and TROPONIN_I) between patients with and without mRNA Vaccination.
Methods: This study included 125 patients (65 male and 60 female) with vaccinated and non-vaccinated covid-19 with an age range of 20–69 years. These patients are divided into two main groups: 1. vaccinated (vaccinated with COVID-19 infection, vaccinated without COVID-19 disease, vaccinated recovered from the CoV-19 virus),2. unvaccinated (infected with the CoV-19 virus and non-vaccinated, recovered from covid-19 and unvaccinated). The outcome is measured using the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. This study was conducted during the period from November 2021 to May 2022 at the Martyr Dr. Fairouz General Hospital, Wasit governorate, Iraq.
Results: Estimation of serum Troponin I and Myoglobin concentration showed that concentrations of Troponin I and Myoglobin were significantly higher (P<0.0001) in individuals infected with CoV-19 virus and unvaccinated higher than vaccinated with CoV-19 disease indicating the impact of the vaccine on the increment of both markers. However, the level of each marker was substantially higher (P<0.0001) in vaccinated with CoV-19 infection more than vaccinated without or recovered from COVID-19 illness.
Conclusions: The use of mRNA CoV-19 vaccination significantly modulate the increment of Troponin I and Myoglobin and improves the cardiac symptomatology in patients with CoV-19 infection.

Pathological risk factors related to mother during pregnancy that lead to epilepsy in children

Halah Mohammed; Asmaa Tarek Kadhim Al-Hakak

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 8-13
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.17159

Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder related to abnormal electrical activity in the brain. The current study aims to identify the risk factors associated with epilepsy among children related to mothers.
 
Methodology: A descriptive case-control study was adopted to achieve the stated objectives. An analytic case-control study, Non-Probability (a Purposive Sample) of (100) women of Children with epilepsy as the case group, and (100) women of healthy children without epilepsy as a control group. The reliability of the instrument is determined using Cronbach Alpha, and the Validity of questionnaires was determined through a panel of experts. The data are analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.
 
Results: The study has shown that residency, mother exposure to domestic violence during pregnancy, mother exposure to an accident during pregnancy, and prolonged labor are significantly associated with epilepsy occurrence (the Odds ratio more than 1), so these factors are more likely to be risk factors associated with epilepsy occurrence.
 
Conclusion: The study concludes that among the risk factors associated with epilepsy for the present study were residency, exposure to domestic violence, exposure to the accident (car accident, trauma, fall), and prolonged labor.

Related Pathological and Social Factors that Delay Early Detection of Breast Cancer among Females

Asmaa Tarek Kadhim Al-Hakak; Halah Basim Jawad Mohammed

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.17158

The current study aimed at assessing the factors that hinder early detection of breast cancer among women, and to identify the association between socio-demographic characteristics and women's knowledge about ways of early detection and causes for delay in seeking medical help.

Methodology: A descriptive design/correlation study is used throughout the present study. A Non-Probability (Purposive Sample) of (150) women with third and more stages of breast cancer (advanced breast cancer) was selected. The data are collected through the utilization of the developed questionnaire by using an interview technique after the estimation of the validity and reliability of the study instrument.

Results: the correlation between overall women's knowledge about ways of early detection and their demographic data, shows that overall women's knowledge has a significant positive correlation with each of age, family history of breast cancer, and level of education. The result also indicates that the correlation between causes for delay in seeking medical intervention and women demographic data. It shows that there is a significant positive correlation with each of residence and family history of breast cancer and most patients are delayed in seeking medicine because of lack of awareness and financial problems.

Conclusion: The study concluded that the general assessment is moderate knowledge about early detection of breast cancer among women, and found a significant relationship between family history and residence with knowledge of patient while there is no correlation with other demographic data.

Study of the Bacterial Sensitivity to different Antibiotics which are isolated from patients with UTI using Kirby-Bauer Method

Yousif Sinan Alhamadani; Aamir Oudah

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.19387

Background: The Aim of the study was to determine the sensitivity of different types of bacteria to 30 different types of antibiotics by using Kirby-Bauer Method.
Methods: The study was conducted in December 2021 and January 2022, in Al-Samawah city. Where the study was conducted on 33 patients from both genders suffering from urinary tract infection, urine samples were collected using (First morning specimen), Where the chemical tests were carried out before the process of urine culturing by using petri dishes than bacterial species were isolated and their sensitivity to different antibiotics was determined.
Results: Staphylococcus aureus showed sensitivity to different antibiotics where the most effective antibiotic were Imipenem (100%). E. coli showed sensitivity to Amikacin, Imipenem and Meropenem by (100%). For Proteus mirabilis the most effective antibiotics were Amikacin, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Imipenem and Meropenem by (100%). For Streptococcus pyogenes the most effective antibiotics were Amikacin, Ciproflaxcine, Doxycycline, Imipenem, Meropenem, Norfloxacin, Rifampicin, Levofloxacin and Tetracycline (100%) and for Staphylococcus epidermidi were Cefepime, Norfloxacin, Nitrofurantoin, Piperacillin, Rifampicin, Gentamycin, Trimethoprim, Tobramycin and Levofloxacin (100%) and for Enterococcus faecalis were Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Imipenem, Rifampicin and Meropenem (100%).
Conclusions: The current study shows Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli to be the most common pathogens in our study, with very high antibiotic sensitivities to Amikacin, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Imipenem and Meropenem and according to the C&S results.

The use of collagen type-II as an indicator for assessment regeneration effect post intra-articular pure-PRP injection in KOA patient

Ajil A. Alzamily; Waleed M. Jifeel

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 7-14
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.19388

Background: knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a complex disease that causes metabolic, structural, biochemical, and functional alterations in afflicted tissues. Physical examination and radiological findings are the present methods for the diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis. Traditionally, KOA medication focused on symptom management. Clinical trials focused on delaying or reversing disease development have gained popularity in recent years. PRP is among the medicinal approaches used to manage KOA.Purpose: By assessing the cartilage degradation marker collagen-II, the study's aim was to figure out whether the use of pure-PRP may help KOA patients' damaged cartilage layers regenerate.
Methods: This non-randomized controlled trial study involved 66 patients with knee OA and 28 healthy control subjects from December 2021 to February 2022. There were 2 categories of knee OA patients: 34 with moderate (grade-3) and 32 with mild (grade-2) KOA. So, every group of KOA patients is divided into three subgroups based to the frequency of injections (single, double, or triple) in addition to severity. Based on clinical and radiological data using the Kellgren-Lawence (KL) 0–4 grading system, the patients' diagnoses and classifications are made. This study was designed at AL-Imam Ali hospital, Babylon governorate, Iraq and approved by the medical human research ethics committee at Al-Qadisiyah university/ collage of medicine.
Results: The findings of this investigation show that the serum collagen type-II content was considerably greater in KOA patients were compared to control subjects, and in moderate compared to mild KOA as the severity of the disease progressed. But following pure-PRP injection, the serum level of collagen type-II did not significantly decrease, and increasing the number of injections had no better effect.
Conclusions: PRP therapy was generally acceptable for patients in terms of improving symptoms and there were no complications following injection. However, there is insufficient indication that platelet rich plasma regenerates cartilage damage in knee OA patients, as there was no significant decrease in the amount of collagen type-II.

Pathological risk factors related to mother during pregnancy that lead to epilepsy in children

Halah Mohammed; Asmaa Tarek Kadhim Al-Hakak

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 8-13
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.17159

Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder related to abnormal electrical activity in the brain. The current study aims to identify the risk factors associated with epilepsy among children related to mothers.
 
Methodology: A descriptive case-control study was adopted to achieve the stated objectives. An analytic case-control study, Non-Probability (a Purposive Sample) of (100) women of Children with epilepsy as the case group, and (100) women of healthy children without epilepsy as a control group. The reliability of the instrument is determined using Cronbach Alpha, and the Validity of questionnaires was determined through a panel of experts. The data are analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.
 
Results: The study has shown that residency, mother exposure to domestic violence during pregnancy, mother exposure to an accident during pregnancy, and prolonged labor are significantly associated with epilepsy occurrence (the Odds ratio more than 1), so these factors are more likely to be risk factors associated with epilepsy occurrence.
 
Conclusion: The study concludes that among the risk factors associated with epilepsy for the present study were residency, exposure to domestic violence, exposure to the accident (car accident, trauma, fall), and prolonged labor.

Secondary Metabolism Compounds Study of Essential Oils for the Mentha spicata L. and Ocimum basilicum L.

Raghad Khalil Alarkwazi; Gasaq Reaihd Abdulreda; Ali Salam Ali

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 31-37
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.18906

Background: The mint and basil plants (M. spicata L. and O. basilicum L.) of the labiate family were used in the study.
 
Methods: A qualitative chemical detection regarding several active chemicals in the leaves of M. spicata L. and O. basilicum L. was part of the investigation.
 
Results: The findings revealed that both species include flavonoids and glycosides, yet tannins and saponins were not found in the leaves extract of O. basilicum, and volatile oils were found in the alcoholic extract at a rate of 4.5% in the leaves of O. basilicum. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) was used to detect six chemical active groups include (O-H, C=H, C=C, C=N, C-O, C-N). Our findings revealed the presence of alkaloid; the extraction yield for volatile oils in M. spicata species is 3%. As for the presence of nutrients in the type, the highest percentage of Calcium is in species O. basilicum.
 
Conclusions: The presence of effective chemical compounds in O. basilicum and M. spicata leaves indicates its importance as a source of useful drugs and the importance of chemical components in the pharmaceutical industries, as well as enhancing the importance of its use in folk medicine as a safe treatment for many diseases.

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