Main Subjects : Immunology

Novel SNPs of TNF-a and IL-6 that Regulate Serum Level in Obese Patients

Hadeel Abdulhadi Omear

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2023, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 7-20
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2023.6398.1025

Background Obesity is an abnormal amount of fats in the body that can result from several factors majorly including environmental and genetic fac- tors. The worldwide prevalence of obesity has increased tremendously in the last three decades and is now considered a global epidemic. Despite the negative impacts of obesity on human health and its majorly associated risk factors such as heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancers, no effective strategies have been employed to bring down its rate which can reach an alarming level in the next few years.
Objective Previously, various studies have reported the high serum concentrations of two cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in obese patients. These genes (TNF-α and IL-6) are released from the adipose tissues stimulated by obesity. Considering their pivotal association with obesity, this study has been designed to investigate the relationship between SNPs of TNF-α and IL-6 and their high serum lev- els in obesity.
Results Here, we utilized R language to perform statistical analyses such as correlation, normality testing, ROC, and regression analysis on serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 between obese and control groups. Furthermore, the frequencies of clinical data and Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium tests for allele and the genotypes analysis of the cytokines were performed. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly correlated with obesity SNPs.

Evaluation of some biochemical markers in relation to COVID-19 mRNA vaccine

Meaad Falah Fadhil; Buthainah Al-Azzawi

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 6-14
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.20105

Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a national pandemic for more than 2 years, and it continues to have an unimaginable impact on our way of life and quality of life. It is critical to gain a  deeper understanding of how immunity is regulated in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The C-reactive.protein.(CRP) was the first acute phase protein to be identified, and it serves as a highly sensitive systemic indication of tissue damage, infection, as well as inflammation. Smooth muscle cells, lymphocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells, and adipocytes are all involved in the production of this protein. Interleukin.10.(IL-10), commonly described as human. cytokine.synthesis.inhibitory.factor (CSIF). The IL-10 gene in humans produces interleukin 10, a pleiotropic cytokine with strong anti-inflammatory as well as immunosuppressive activities.
The Aim the aim of this study is to evaluate the vaccine effectiveness using diagnostic biochemical markers.
Material and method this study included 125 patients (56 males and 69 females) with vaccinated and non-vaccinated COVID-19 with an age range of 20–70 years. These patients are divided into two main groups: 1. vaccinated (vaccinated with COVID-19 infection, vaccinated without COVID-19 disease, vaccinated recovered
from the CoV-19 virus), 2. Unvaccinated (infected with the CoV-19 virus and non-vaccinated, recovered from COVID-19 and unvaccinated). The outcome is measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. This study was conducted during the period from November 2021 to May 2022 at Al-Shifaa medical center and the vaccine unit at Al-Diwaniyah Educational Hospital, Diwaniyah governorate, Iraq.
Results The results showed an increase in CRP level for the vaccinated groups was significantly higher (P<0.0001) in group G2 (vaccinated with COVID) more than in G1 (vaccinated without COVID) and G3 (vaccinated recovered COVID). For non-vaccinated groups, it was significantly higher (P<0.01) in group G4 (no vaccine with COVID) more than in group G5 (no vaccine recovered COVID). The results also showed that the IL-10 in the 2nd and 4th weeks after vaccination had a higher level in G1 (vaccinated without COVID) and G2 (vaccinated with COVID) than in any other time incident. For G4 (no vaccine with COVID) showed that a significant increase was noticed in the 2nd week after diagnosis more than other time incidents. While G3 (vaccinated recovered COVID), G5 (no vaccine recovered COVID) showed that no significant increase was noticed among the different time incidents.
Conclusion the use of mRNA for CoV-19 vaccination significantly modulates the increment of C-reactive protein and interleukin-10 and improves the immune response in patients with COVID-19 infection.

Evaluation of The Effect of Epidural Steroid Injection on Interleukin -18 in Patients with Low Back Pain

Zainab R. Alqaseer; Ajil A. Alzamily; Ihsan A. alsalman

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 27-33
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.20106

Background: Having lower back discomfort is common. Back ten- sion may cause sciatica. Low back, or lumbar region, begins below the ribs. Most people will have low back discomfort. Disk damage, struc- tural issues, and atherosclerosis also contribute. Rest, physical ther- apy, and medicine relieve pain. Weight management and exercise re- duce low back pain risk. Epidural steroids alleviate leg and back pain (ESIs). Their extensive history makes them a good nonsurgical sciat- ica and back pain treatment. ESI may relieve radiculopathy.Human interleukin-18 (IL18) is an interferon-gamma-inducing factor. Gene generates inflammatory cytokine.
The Aim: The study was aimed at the effect of epidural steroid in- jection on the concentrations of IL-18 in patients with LBP.
Materials and Methods: Serum Interleukin-18 was measured us- ing Elabscience® kits. In a case-control study, 36 healthy people and 22 LBP patients (13 men and 9 women) were compared (23 males and 13 females). Our research included 30 to 79-year-olds. All patients in this research were diagnosed by specialists based on their histo- ries and clinical features. A patient’s file includes ages, genders, fam- ily history, ailments (such as diabetes and hypertension), medicines, weight, height, and BMI (BMI). Participants with COVID-19, autoim- mune disorders, diabetes mellitus, acute or chronic liver disease, renal disease, thyroid function abnormalities, or kidney disease were elim- inated.
Results: Interleukin-18 (IL-18) was substantially greater in patients with LBP (250.87 ±29.72 pg/mL) than following injection and con- trol (157.94± 47.23), (132.40 ±22.58) pg/mL, respectively. Our inves- tigation found a very significant difference (p-value < 0.0001) in IL- 18 concentrations compared to L Also, mean values before and after injection were significantly different (p-value 0.0001). There is a sig- nificant difference in mean values before and after injection (p-value < 0.0001) and after injection and control (p = 0.0012).
Conclusion: Epidural steroid treatment positively impacts LBP patients by decreasing IL-18 levels, which could be played an essential role in repairing damaged tissues.

Evaluation of the effect of injectionsof both platelet-rich plasma and hyaluronic acid in patients with early knee osteoarthritis via the concentration of interleukin-1β in serum

Ali Albdeery; Ajil Alzamily

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 39-49
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.20103

Background Early knee osteoarthritis, which causes the degeneration of articular cartilage and subchondral bone, is a disease that worsens with time and is a major contributor to physical disability. Several inflammatory cy- tokines released by chondrocytes work in concert to trigger the production of enzymes that break down cartilage. A pro-inflammatory cytokine called interleukin-1β (IL-1 β ) accelerates cartilage breakdown after trauma, re- duces matrix production, and results in chondrocyte death. Dendritic cells and macrophages are the main sources of IL-1β. On the other hand, os- teoblasts, periodontal ligament cells, and gingival fibroblasts have the abil- ity to release IL-1β. Treatment pure- platelet rich plasma (P-PRP) effec- tiveness of transforming growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, type I insulin-like growth factor, and the vascular endothelial growth factor is thought to be related to their release. Because of their capacity to increase matrix formation, growth factors have been widely researched for OA and cartilage regeneration. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a glycosaminoglycan poly- mer composed of N-acetyl glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid disaccharide molecules. Early embryonic development, inflammatory, wound repair, cell differentiation, and viscoelasticity are all affected by HA, and other biologi- cal processes.
Materials and Methods Elabscience kits were used to assess the serum IL-1β level. The experimental investigation included 18 control groups, 10 HA injections, and 21 pure PRP injections. age ranged from 30 to 80. The study was excluded all individuals with advanced osteoarthritis in the knee, COVID-19, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. the time frame running from November 2021 until June 2022. Other variables in our research were age, gender, family history, use of antihypertensive medications or medica- tions for other disorders, and body mass index (BMI).
Results The findings of this study demonstrate elevated IL-1β levels in patients with early KOA before treatments injection compared with the healthy control. After treatments injection, the level of IL-1β was decreased compared with before injection.
Conclusions IL-1β could be one of the prognostic signs of early KOA

Interleukin-4 Enhances the Production of Anti-Inflammatory Macrophages That Inhibits the Growth of Osteoclasts to Improve Knee Functionality

Haider Ali Yousif; Ajil A. Alzamily; Ihsan Abdulabbas Alsalman

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 50-56
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.20104

Background : The knee is one of the largest and most complicated joints in the body. Knee osteoarthritis is a common disease for many people in many countries, especially those who have an unbalanced and unhealthy lifestyle, where they suffer from pain and difficulty in movement. Given that treatments and medicines generally have side effects, it was possible to search for an alter- native treatment that is safer and it has the greatest effect. Platelet-rich plasma therapy is an important and useful treatment by injecting it locally into the knee joint, which allows for repairing the damage in the joint and rebuilding it at the level of the microenvironment. Significant disappearance of symptoms the in- nate immune system stimulates interleukin-4, an anti-inflammatory cytokine secreted by the body in response to the inflammation that occurs in the affected area of the body, where it works to stimulate the repair of damage.
Patients and procedure This non-randomized controlled pilot study in- cluded 32 patients (18 females and 14 males) with knee osteoarthritis and 16 healthy subjects (5 females and 11 male) from November 2021 to June 2022. All KOA patients diagnosed by orthopedic specialists were based on clinical treat- ment and radiological findings (X-rays). They were divided into two groups based on the type of PRP; they received: 21 patients received a single injection of pure-PRP in the knee joint and 11 patients received a single injection of LR- PRP in the knee joint. The PRP were received by patients was 4 ml in the case of both groups. The ages of the participants (patients and control group) ranged between 35-75 years old. Outcomes were measured at two points at baseline and six months after injection with IL-4 as an indicator.
Results The results of this study were showed that the concentration of IL-4 was significantly higher in KOA patients as compared to control subjects, and both the pure-PRP injected group and the LR-PRP injected group showed a significant decrease in the concentration of IL-4 after six weeks of intervention, but the pure-PRP injected group showed a higher reduction in the serum level of IL-4 as compared to the LR-PRP injected group.
Conclusions In conclusion, pure-PRP and LR-PRP showed benefits in terms of inflammation reduction. In both groups, there was a significant reduction in the concentration of IL-4, but the pure-PRP gave a superior outcome as com- pared to the LR-PRP.

A Possible Role for COVID-19 Infection in the Development of Thyroid Disorder

Maryam Saad Ali; Buthainah Al-Azzawi

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.5461.1008

Background Coronavirus is the new millennium’s pandemic, with widespread consequences that include pneumonia and systemic contagion, as well as various clinical diagnoses affecting the endocrine system.
Objectives To investigate the impact of covid-19 infection on thyroid stability and disease through measuring some biochemical marker that are related to thyroid.
• Determine the level of inflammatory marker such as IL-6 and INF- γ
Patients & Methods Eighty patients were involved in this case control cohort study all of them attended the isolation wards at Marjan Teaching Hospital in the province of Babylon- Iraq, from September 2021 to February 2022. The group of patients was divided into forty participants were apparently healthy individual without history of any diseases and with negative PCR results. The rest of the participants include: First group forty patients tested positive for Covid-19 infection with no history of thyroid disorder. Following those patients blood sample were collected at different time incident 5th ,10th ,15th and 25 day after diagnosis. Second group after following the patient for 2nd month five of them have symptoms of thyroid disease and after investigation it was confirmed to have thyroid problems. Blood was drawn from the patients for measurement the level of IL-6 and INF- γ concentration using ELISA technique.
Results Our analysis of 80 Covid-19 patients and control , it was confirmed IL-6 and INF- γ were significant increase than control group and second.
Conclusion In this cohort research of patients infected with Covid-19 infection, both IL-6 and INF- were shown to be significantly higher than in the control and second groups.

Evaluation of some cardiac markers in relation to COVID-19 mRNA vaccine

Buthainah Al-Azzawi; Ahmed Kareem AL-Eqabi

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 15-24
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.19395

Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a dangerous cardiovascular illness that has a significant impact on people's health. Several biomarkers, including Myoglobin and troponin I (cTnI) were utilized to diagnose AMI in recent decades. The Troponin I (cTnI) was designated as the "gold standard" cardiac biomarker for the prediction of cardiomyopathy. It's a heart muscle regulating protein found on normal myocyte actin filaments. When cardiac muscles are injured, cTnI, one of the main subunits of the cardiac troponin complex, is released into the circulation (e.g., myocardial infarction). Myoglobin denoted by (symbols Mb and MB) seems to be an iron- and o2-binding protein present in the vertebrate heart and skeletal muscle tissues and, more specifically, nearly all mammals. In humans, MB is only present in the bloodstream following muscle damage. Its primary function is to supply myocytes with oxygen. Also essential to nitric oxide hemostasis was myoglobin. Additionally, it facilitates the detoxification of response oxygen molecules from the body. MB is accountable for most vertebrate muscles' red hue.The aim: To assess the difference in the level of (MYOGLOBIN and TROPONIN_I) between patients with and without mRNA Vaccination.
Methods: This study included 125 patients (65 male and 60 female) with vaccinated and non-vaccinated covid-19 with an age range of 20–69 years. These patients are divided into two main groups: 1. vaccinated (vaccinated with COVID-19 infection, vaccinated without COVID-19 disease, vaccinated recovered from the CoV-19 virus),2. unvaccinated (infected with the CoV-19 virus and non-vaccinated, recovered from covid-19 and unvaccinated). The outcome is measured using the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. This study was conducted during the period from November 2021 to May 2022 at the Martyr Dr. Fairouz General Hospital, Wasit governorate, Iraq.
Results: Estimation of serum Troponin I and Myoglobin concentration showed that concentrations of Troponin I and Myoglobin were significantly higher (P<0.0001) in individuals infected with CoV-19 virus and unvaccinated higher than vaccinated with CoV-19 disease indicating the impact of the vaccine on the increment of both markers. However, the level of each marker was substantially higher (P<0.0001) in vaccinated with CoV-19 infection more than vaccinated without or recovered from COVID-19 illness.
Conclusions: The use of mRNA CoV-19 vaccination significantly modulate the increment of Troponin I and Myoglobin and improves the cardiac symptomatology in patients with CoV-19 infection.

Study of the Bacterial Sensitivity to different Antibiotics which are isolated from patients with UTI using Kirby-Bauer Method

Yousif Sinan Alhamadani; Aamir Oudah

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.19387

Background: The Aim of the study was to determine the sensitivity of different types of bacteria to 30 different types of antibiotics by using Kirby-Bauer Method.
Methods: The study was conducted in December 2021 and January 2022, in Al-Samawah city. Where the study was conducted on 33 patients from both genders suffering from urinary tract infection, urine samples were collected using (First morning specimen), Where the chemical tests were carried out before the process of urine culturing by using petri dishes than bacterial species were isolated and their sensitivity to different antibiotics was determined.
Results: Staphylococcus aureus showed sensitivity to different antibiotics where the most effective antibiotic were Imipenem (100%). E. coli showed sensitivity to Amikacin, Imipenem and Meropenem by (100%). For Proteus mirabilis the most effective antibiotics were Amikacin, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Imipenem and Meropenem by (100%). For Streptococcus pyogenes the most effective antibiotics were Amikacin, Ciproflaxcine, Doxycycline, Imipenem, Meropenem, Norfloxacin, Rifampicin, Levofloxacin and Tetracycline (100%) and for Staphylococcus epidermidi were Cefepime, Norfloxacin, Nitrofurantoin, Piperacillin, Rifampicin, Gentamycin, Trimethoprim, Tobramycin and Levofloxacin (100%) and for Enterococcus faecalis were Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Imipenem, Rifampicin and Meropenem (100%).
Conclusions: The current study shows Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli to be the most common pathogens in our study, with very high antibiotic sensitivities to Amikacin, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Imipenem and Meropenem and according to the C&S results.

Intersecting Epidemics of Many Unknowns: Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Covid-19

Tomy .A.D; Tai Chy

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 14-18
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.17450

Since July 2020, or around six months after the outbreak of the new coronavirus infection in 2019, no one has been able to explain why people with HIV (PLWH) are negatively affected (COVID-19). COVID-19 vulnerability appears to be the same in HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals, however, results may be inconsistent. Some of the misunderstandings are due to the lack of data and the novelty of COVID-19, while others are due to the ambiguity of the question "when?" It has the means to make HIV a "risk factor" for the development of COVID-19.