Issue 3

A Possible Role for COVID-19 Infection in the Development of Thyroid Disorder

Maryam Saad Ali; Buthainah Al-Azzawi

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.5461.1008

Background Coronavirus is the new millennium’s pandemic, with widespread consequences that include pneumonia and systemic contagion, as well as various clinical diagnoses affecting the endocrine system.
Objectives To investigate the impact of covid-19 infection on thyroid stability and disease through measuring some biochemical marker that are related to thyroid.
• Determine the level of inflammatory marker such as IL-6 and INF- γ
Patients & Methods Eighty patients were involved in this case control cohort study all of them attended the isolation wards at Marjan Teaching Hospital in the province of Babylon- Iraq, from September 2021 to February 2022. The group of patients was divided into forty participants were apparently healthy individual without history of any diseases and with negative PCR results. The rest of the participants include: First group forty patients tested positive for Covid-19 infection with no history of thyroid disorder. Following those patients blood sample were collected at different time incident 5th ,10th ,15th and 25 day after diagnosis. Second group after following the patient for 2nd month five of them have symptoms of thyroid disease and after investigation it was confirmed to have thyroid problems. Blood was drawn from the patients for measurement the level of IL-6 and INF- γ concentration using ELISA technique.
Results Our analysis of 80 Covid-19 patients and control , it was confirmed IL-6 and INF- γ were significant increase than control group and second.
Conclusion In this cohort research of patients infected with Covid-19 infection, both IL-6 and INF- were shown to be significantly higher than in the control and second groups.

Evaluation of some biochemical markers in relation to COVID-19 mRNA vaccine

Meaad Falah Fadhil; Buthainah Al-Azzawi

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 6-14
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.20105

Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a national pandemic for more than 2 years, and it continues to have an unimaginable impact on our way of life and quality of life. It is critical to gain a  deeper understanding of how immunity is regulated in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The C-reactive.protein.(CRP) was the first acute phase protein to be identified, and it serves as a highly sensitive systemic indication of tissue damage, infection, as well as inflammation. Smooth muscle cells, lymphocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells, and adipocytes are all involved in the production of this protein. Interleukin.10.(IL-10), commonly described as human. cytokine.synthesis.inhibitory.factor (CSIF). The IL-10 gene in humans produces interleukin 10, a pleiotropic cytokine with strong anti-inflammatory as well as immunosuppressive activities.
The Aim the aim of this study is to evaluate the vaccine effectiveness using diagnostic biochemical markers.
Material and method this study included 125 patients (56 males and 69 females) with vaccinated and non-vaccinated COVID-19 with an age range of 20–70 years. These patients are divided into two main groups: 1. vaccinated (vaccinated with COVID-19 infection, vaccinated without COVID-19 disease, vaccinated recovered
from the CoV-19 virus), 2. Unvaccinated (infected with the CoV-19 virus and non-vaccinated, recovered from COVID-19 and unvaccinated). The outcome is measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. This study was conducted during the period from November 2021 to May 2022 at Al-Shifaa medical center and the vaccine unit at Al-Diwaniyah Educational Hospital, Diwaniyah governorate, Iraq.
Results The results showed an increase in CRP level for the vaccinated groups was significantly higher (P<0.0001) in group G2 (vaccinated with COVID) more than in G1 (vaccinated without COVID) and G3 (vaccinated recovered COVID). For non-vaccinated groups, it was significantly higher (P<0.01) in group G4 (no vaccine with COVID) more than in group G5 (no vaccine recovered COVID). The results also showed that the IL-10 in the 2nd and 4th weeks after vaccination had a higher level in G1 (vaccinated without COVID) and G2 (vaccinated with COVID) than in any other time incident. For G4 (no vaccine with COVID) showed that a significant increase was noticed in the 2nd week after diagnosis more than other time incidents. While G3 (vaccinated recovered COVID), G5 (no vaccine recovered COVID) showed that no significant increase was noticed among the different time incidents.
Conclusion the use of mRNA for CoV-19 vaccination significantly modulates the increment of C-reactive protein and interleukin-10 and improves the immune response in patients with COVID-19 infection.

Antibacterial Effect of Onion‘s Infusion and Garlic‘s Infusion on Escherichia Coli Isolated from Urine Samples

Ahmed Sami Salman

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 15-20
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.20107

Introduction many searchers studies properties of Onion extract and garlic extract,but they do not study infusion effect of garlic and onion against bacteria.
The Aim to know antibacterial activity of Onion‘s Infusion and Garlic‘s Infusion.
Methodology searcher prepared garlic infusion for many periods, and onion infusion for many periods also, and study antibacterial activity against Escherichia Coli Isolated from Urine Samples.
Results : thirty urine samples were collected to detect the presence of E. coli and the study found that (26) samples contained Escherichia Coli bacteria at a rate of (86.66%) through phenotypic and microscopic diagnosis and then diagnosed with Vitek, infusion garlic and onion separately for different periods of time and with different concentrations, and it was found that the highest concentration of 100ppt was more effective on inhibiting the growth of bacteria, the study also tested the synergistic and antagonistic activity of both infusions on the inhibition of bacterial growth.
Conclusion The activity of preventing the growth of bacteria was enhanced by prolonging the infusion of garlic or
onions. Additionally, neither a synergistic nor an inhibitory effect is related to concentration changes.

Study of tissue damage in the respiratory system of patients with COVID-19 in Al-Muthanna Governorate

Yousif Alhamadani; Rima Hassan

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 21-26
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.5654.1019

The object of study was conducted on 30 patients from three different geographical areas of Al-Muthanna Governorate, Samawah city, Al-Rumaitha district, and Al-Khader. The study was conducted on 30 patients, 18 females and 12 males. Ages ranges were between 20 – 75 years old.
The aim of study was determination tissue damage levels in the  respiratory system in patients with COVID-19.
The study showed that females are more susceptible to get COVID-19 than males Percentage of females was 60%. the percentage of tissue damage in the tissues of the respiratory system wide range between 2 - 80% Percentage of damage at the site of the lungs and main bronchi which is the most, was 55%. As for the ages of the patients, the study showed that the ages older than 60 years old 43.3% from total patients they are the ones most susceptible to infection. Relative to the rate of tissue damage in the respiratory system for patients older than 60 years old was 64.7%, it is the highest percentage of tissue damage in relation to other ages.

Evaluation of The Effect of Epidural Steroid Injection on Interleukin -18 in Patients with Low Back Pain

Zainab R. Alqaseer; Ajil A. Alzamily; Ihsan A. alsalman

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 27-33
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.20106

Background: Having lower back discomfort is common. Back ten- sion may cause sciatica. Low back, or lumbar region, begins below the ribs. Most people will have low back discomfort. Disk damage, struc- tural issues, and atherosclerosis also contribute. Rest, physical ther- apy, and medicine relieve pain. Weight management and exercise re- duce low back pain risk. Epidural steroids alleviate leg and back pain (ESIs). Their extensive history makes them a good nonsurgical sciat- ica and back pain treatment. ESI may relieve radiculopathy.Human interleukin-18 (IL18) is an interferon-gamma-inducing factor. Gene generates inflammatory cytokine.
The Aim: The study was aimed at the effect of epidural steroid in- jection on the concentrations of IL-18 in patients with LBP.
Materials and Methods: Serum Interleukin-18 was measured us- ing Elabscience® kits. In a case-control study, 36 healthy people and 22 LBP patients (13 men and 9 women) were compared (23 males and 13 females). Our research included 30 to 79-year-olds. All patients in this research were diagnosed by specialists based on their histo- ries and clinical features. A patient’s file includes ages, genders, fam- ily history, ailments (such as diabetes and hypertension), medicines, weight, height, and BMI (BMI). Participants with COVID-19, autoim- mune disorders, diabetes mellitus, acute or chronic liver disease, renal disease, thyroid function abnormalities, or kidney disease were elim- inated.
Results: Interleukin-18 (IL-18) was substantially greater in patients with LBP (250.87 ±29.72 pg/mL) than following injection and con- trol (157.94± 47.23), (132.40 ±22.58) pg/mL, respectively. Our inves- tigation found a very significant difference (p-value < 0.0001) in IL- 18 concentrations compared to L Also, mean values before and after injection were significantly different (p-value 0.0001). There is a sig- nificant difference in mean values before and after injection (p-value < 0.0001) and after injection and control (p = 0.0012).
Conclusion: Epidural steroid treatment positively impacts LBP patients by decreasing IL-18 levels, which could be played an essential role in repairing damaged tissues.

Estimation of some Essential oils and study Antibacterial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis Extract

Madeha H. Hossain; Shahbaa M. Al-khazraji; Ali S. Hassoon

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 34-38
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.20108

The study was done to look into the antibacterial activity of equeous and methalonic extracts of the Rosmarinus officinalis leaves on the growth repression of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in vitro. The disc diffusion method was employed to determine the sus- ceptibility of the bacteria tested to the two rosemary extracts. In order to compare the activity of two extracts, gentamicin (300 mg/ml) was used as a positive control. The results demonstrated that the two ex- tracts exhibit antibacterial efficacy in inhibiting the development of tested microorganisms. In examined bacteria, the methalonic extract inhibited growth more than the equeous extract, and S. aureus was more susceptible to the action of the two extracts than E. coli. Some of the medically important oils in rosemary have been estimated (Ci- neole, Camphor, Linalool)%. The results showed that the alcoholic extract gave higher results than the aqueous extract

Evaluation of the effect of injectionsof both platelet-rich plasma and hyaluronic acid in patients with early knee osteoarthritis via the concentration of interleukin-1β in serum

Ali Albdeery; Ajil Alzamily

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 39-49
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.20103

Background Early knee osteoarthritis, which causes the degeneration of articular cartilage and subchondral bone, is a disease that worsens with time and is a major contributor to physical disability. Several inflammatory cy- tokines released by chondrocytes work in concert to trigger the production of enzymes that break down cartilage. A pro-inflammatory cytokine called interleukin-1β (IL-1 β ) accelerates cartilage breakdown after trauma, re- duces matrix production, and results in chondrocyte death. Dendritic cells and macrophages are the main sources of IL-1β. On the other hand, os- teoblasts, periodontal ligament cells, and gingival fibroblasts have the abil- ity to release IL-1β. Treatment pure- platelet rich plasma (P-PRP) effec- tiveness of transforming growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, type I insulin-like growth factor, and the vascular endothelial growth factor is thought to be related to their release. Because of their capacity to increase matrix formation, growth factors have been widely researched for OA and cartilage regeneration. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a glycosaminoglycan poly- mer composed of N-acetyl glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid disaccharide molecules. Early embryonic development, inflammatory, wound repair, cell differentiation, and viscoelasticity are all affected by HA, and other biologi- cal processes.
Materials and Methods Elabscience kits were used to assess the serum IL-1β level. The experimental investigation included 18 control groups, 10 HA injections, and 21 pure PRP injections. age ranged from 30 to 80. The study was excluded all individuals with advanced osteoarthritis in the knee, COVID-19, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. the time frame running from November 2021 until June 2022. Other variables in our research were age, gender, family history, use of antihypertensive medications or medica- tions for other disorders, and body mass index (BMI).
Results The findings of this study demonstrate elevated IL-1β levels in patients with early KOA before treatments injection compared with the healthy control. After treatments injection, the level of IL-1β was decreased compared with before injection.
Conclusions IL-1β could be one of the prognostic signs of early KOA

Interleukin-4 Enhances the Production of Anti-Inflammatory Macrophages That Inhibits the Growth of Osteoclasts to Improve Knee Functionality

Haider Ali Yousif; Ajil A. Alzamily; Ihsan Abdulabbas Alsalman

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 50-56
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.20104

Background : The knee is one of the largest and most complicated joints in the body. Knee osteoarthritis is a common disease for many people in many countries, especially those who have an unbalanced and unhealthy lifestyle, where they suffer from pain and difficulty in movement. Given that treatments and medicines generally have side effects, it was possible to search for an alter- native treatment that is safer and it has the greatest effect. Platelet-rich plasma therapy is an important and useful treatment by injecting it locally into the knee joint, which allows for repairing the damage in the joint and rebuilding it at the level of the microenvironment. Significant disappearance of symptoms the in- nate immune system stimulates interleukin-4, an anti-inflammatory cytokine secreted by the body in response to the inflammation that occurs in the affected area of the body, where it works to stimulate the repair of damage.
Patients and procedure This non-randomized controlled pilot study in- cluded 32 patients (18 females and 14 males) with knee osteoarthritis and 16 healthy subjects (5 females and 11 male) from November 2021 to June 2022. All KOA patients diagnosed by orthopedic specialists were based on clinical treat- ment and radiological findings (X-rays). They were divided into two groups based on the type of PRP; they received: 21 patients received a single injection of pure-PRP in the knee joint and 11 patients received a single injection of LR- PRP in the knee joint. The PRP were received by patients was 4 ml in the case of both groups. The ages of the participants (patients and control group) ranged between 35-75 years old. Outcomes were measured at two points at baseline and six months after injection with IL-4 as an indicator.
Results The results of this study were showed that the concentration of IL-4 was significantly higher in KOA patients as compared to control subjects, and both the pure-PRP injected group and the LR-PRP injected group showed a significant decrease in the concentration of IL-4 after six weeks of intervention, but the pure-PRP injected group showed a higher reduction in the serum level of IL-4 as compared to the LR-PRP injected group.
Conclusions In conclusion, pure-PRP and LR-PRP showed benefits in terms of inflammation reduction. In both groups, there was a significant reduction in the concentration of IL-4, but the pure-PRP gave a superior outcome as com- pared to the LR-PRP.

Dendrimer as a Recent Drug Delivery System: An Overview

Ghada Hamid Naji; Noor Yousif Fareed; Worood Hameed Al-Zheery

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 57-69
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.20109

Dendrimers, their production, characterization, and use in drug de- livery are briefly covered in this article. Dendrimers are classically symmetric nanoscale molecules with an inner core and an outer shell that have well defined, homogeneous, and monodisperse structures. Dendrimers have a unique potential for encasing or entrapping bioac- tive substances because of their tree-like structure. As a result, they could win a prestigious statue in the fields of pharmaceutical, med- ical, and nutraceutical sciences. Numerous advantageous biologi- cal characteristics exist in them, including polyvalency, self-assembly, electrostatic interactions, best chemical stability, and minimal cell tox- icity. While problems with solubility, stability, and bioavailability are limiting concerns for their implementation.

Evaluation of macro-micronutrient intake in overweight people in Grodno, Belarus

Ali Adeeb Hussein Ali

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 70-79
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.5771.1021

Introduction Obesity is a multi-cause disease characterized by ex- cessive fat accumulation, which leads to health problems and chronic diseases in the future. Based on the concept of energy imbalance, which is the main cause of this disease, weight loss in patients with metabolic obesity can be achieved by reducing the energy value of the diet, which leads to energy deficiency and stimulates fat mobilization from fat depots.
The purpose of the work is to assess the intake of macro- and micronutrients in the diets of overweight individuals.
Materials and methods A survey was conducted to study actual nutrition based on the method of analyzing the frequency of food consumption. Observer groups, aged >18 years (only young people), sexed, living in Grodno, Belarus. During the survey of the respon- dent, the number of food products actually consumed by him during the previous day was established. The applied method of studying actual nutrition is simple and widely available.
Results and Discussions In the group of females with BMI 25-29, the number of cases of increased macronutrient intake in the sample reached 89.4% of cases and micronutrient intake decreased by 94.7% of cases, while in the group of males with BMI 25-29.9, macronutrient intake increased by 84.2% of cases and micronutrients decreased by 86.6% of cases, respectively.
Conclusion The energy imbalance, especially the deficiency of mi- cronutrients, which have a major role in the synthesis of enzymes that catalyze chemical reactions as well as their role in balancing some hormones, leads to an imbalance in the metabolism process, causing overweight and obesity. Our study advises that nutrition should be corrected early on by making bread enriched with microalgae.

Study of the Severity of COVID-19 Infection in Patients with Chronic Diseases

Yousif Alhamadani; Rima Nimatullah Hassan

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages 80-84
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.5677.1020

The object of study was conducted on 100 patients for both gender from three different geographical areas of Al-Muthanna Governorate, Samawah city, Al-Rumaitha district, and Al-Khader. The aim of the research was to study the association of chronic diseases with Covid- 19 disease. The strongest correlation of samples infected with Covid- 19 was found with the medical history of people with one or more diseases. Ages ranges were between 14 to over 60 years old. The study showed the following results: By age group of chronically ill patients 14-25 years old 2%, From 26-40 years 12%, 41-60 years old 18%, Over 60 years old 14%. By age group of healthy subjects14-25 years 12%, From 26-40 years 38%, 41-60 years old 9%, Over 60 years old 2%. According to the medical history, those with one or more chronic diseases were infected with the virus 44%, Healthy people were infected with the virus 56%. According to vaccination: The rate of infection of the vaccinated is 22%, The unvaccinated infection rate is 78%. The severity of infection among the vaccinated was16% mi- nor injury, 6% moderate injury. The incidence of people with chronic diseases and the severity of their infection, blood pressure diseases 6% minor injury, 12% moderate injury, 3% severe injury Diabetes: 3% minor injury, 5% moderate injury, 5% severe injury. heart disease: 2% moderate injury. Asthma diseases: 2% moderate injury. Correlation rate between chronic illness and infection with the Corona virus 3% have moderate incidence of hypertension and diabetes 4% have se- vere high blood pressure and diabetes.