Issue 2

Study of the Bacterial Sensitivity to different Antibiotics which are isolated from patients with UTI using Kirby-Bauer Method

Yousif Sinan Alhamadani; Aamir Oudah

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 1-5

Background: The Aim of the study was to determine the sensitivity of different types of bacteria to 30 different types of antibiotics by using Kirby-Bauer Method.
Methods: The study was conducted in December 2021 and January 2022, in Al-Samawah city. Where the study was conducted on 33 patients from both genders suffering from urinary tract infection, urine samples were collected using (First morning specimen), Where the chemical tests were carried out before the process of urine culturing by using petri dishes than bacterial species were isolated and their sensitivity to different antibiotics was determined.
Results: Staphylococcus aureus showed sensitivity to different antibiotics where the most effective antibiotic were Imipenem (100%). E. coli showed sensitivity to Amikacin, Imipenem and Meropenem by (100%). For Proteus mirabilis the most effective antibiotics were Amikacin, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Imipenem and Meropenem by (100%). For Streptococcus pyogenes the most effective antibiotics were Amikacin, Ciproflaxcine, Doxycycline, Imipenem, Meropenem, Norfloxacin, Rifampicin, Levofloxacin and Tetracycline (100%) and for Staphylococcus epidermidi were Cefepime, Norfloxacin, Nitrofurantoin, Piperacillin, Rifampicin, Gentamycin, Trimethoprim, Tobramycin and Levofloxacin (100%) and for Enterococcus faecalis were Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Imipenem, Rifampicin and Meropenem (100%).
Conclusions: The current study shows Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli to be the most common pathogens in our study, with very high antibiotic sensitivities to Amikacin, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Imipenem and Meropenem and according to the C&S results.

The use of collagen type-II as an indicator for assessment regeneration effect post intra-articular pure-PRP injection in KOA patient

Ajil A. Alzamily; Waleed M. Jifeel

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 6-14

Background: knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a complex disease that causes metabolic, structural, biochemical, and functional alterations in afflicted tissues. Physical examination and radiological findings are the present methods for the diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis. Traditionally, KOA medication focused on symptom management. Clinical trials focused on delaying or reversing disease development have gained popularity in recent years. PRP is among the medicinal approaches used to manage KOA.Purpose: By assessing the cartilage degradation marker collagen-II, the study's aim was to figure out whether the use of pure-PRP may help KOA patients' damaged cartilage layers regenerate.
Methods: This non-randomized controlled trial study involved 66 patients with knee OA and 28 healthy control subjects from December 2021 to February 2022. There were 2 categories of knee OA patients: 34 with moderate (grade-3) and 32 with mild (grade-2) KOA. So, every group of KOA patients is divided into three subgroups based to the frequency of injections (single, double, or triple) in addition to severity. Based on clinical and radiological data using the Kellgren-Lawence (KL) 0–4 grading system, the patients' diagnoses and classifications are made. This study was designed at AL-Imam Ali hospital, Babylon governorate, Iraq and approved by the medical human research ethics committee at Al-Qadisiyah university/ collage of medicine.
Results: The findings of this investigation show that the serum collagen type-II content was considerably greater in KOA patients were compared to control subjects, and in moderate compared to mild KOA as the severity of the disease progressed. But following pure-PRP injection, the serum level of collagen type-II did not significantly decrease, and increasing the number of injections had no better effect.
Conclusions: PRP therapy was generally acceptable for patients in terms of improving symptoms and there were no complications following injection. However, there is insufficient indication that platelet rich plasma regenerates cartilage damage in knee OA patients, as there was no significant decrease in the amount of collagen type-II.

Evaluation of some cardiac markers in relation to COVID-19 mRNA vaccine

Buthainah Al-Azzawi; Ahmed Kareem AL-Eqabi

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 15-24

Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a dangerous cardiovascular illness that has a significant impact on people's health. Several biomarkers, including Myoglobin and troponin I (cTnI) were utilized to diagnose AMI in recent decades. The Troponin I (cTnI) was designated as the "gold standard" cardiac biomarker for the prediction of cardiomyopathy. It's a heart muscle regulating protein found on normal myocyte actin filaments. When cardiac muscles are injured, cTnI, one of the main subunits of the cardiac troponin complex, is released into the circulation (e.g., myocardial infarction). Myoglobin denoted by (symbols Mb and MB) seems to be an iron- and o2-binding protein present in the vertebrate heart and skeletal muscle tissues and, more specifically, nearly all mammals. In humans, MB is only present in the bloodstream following muscle damage. Its primary function is to supply myocytes with oxygen. Also essential to nitric oxide hemostasis was myoglobin. Additionally, it facilitates the detoxification of response oxygen molecules from the body. MB is accountable for most vertebrate muscles' red hue.The aim: To assess the difference in the level of (MYOGLOBIN and TROPONIN_I) between patients with and without mRNA Vaccination.
Methods: This study included 125 patients (65 male and 60 female) with vaccinated and non-vaccinated covid-19 with an age range of 20–69 years. These patients are divided into two main groups: 1. vaccinated (vaccinated with COVID-19 infection, vaccinated without COVID-19 disease, vaccinated recovered from the CoV-19 virus),2. unvaccinated (infected with the CoV-19 virus and non-vaccinated, recovered from covid-19 and unvaccinated). The outcome is measured using the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. This study was conducted during the period from November 2021 to May 2022 at the Martyr Dr. Fairouz General Hospital, Wasit governorate, Iraq.
Results: Estimation of serum Troponin I and Myoglobin concentration showed that concentrations of Troponin I and Myoglobin were significantly higher (P<0.0001) in individuals infected with CoV-19 virus and unvaccinated higher than vaccinated with CoV-19 disease indicating the impact of the vaccine on the increment of both markers. However, the level of each marker was substantially higher (P<0.0001) in vaccinated with CoV-19 infection more than vaccinated without or recovered from COVID-19 illness.
Conclusions: The use of mRNA CoV-19 vaccination significantly modulate the increment of Troponin I and Myoglobin and improves the cardiac symptomatology in patients with CoV-19 infection.