Issue 1

Related Pathological and Social Factors that Delay Early Detection of Breast Cancer among Females

Asmaa Tarek Kadhim Al-Hakak; Halah Basim Jawad Mohammed

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.17158

The current study aimed at assessing the factors that hinder early detection of breast cancer among women, and to identify the association between socio-demographic characteristics and women's knowledge about ways of early detection and causes for delay in seeking medical help.

Methodology: A descriptive design/correlation study is used throughout the present study. A Non-Probability (Purposive Sample) of (150) women with third and more stages of breast cancer (advanced breast cancer) was selected. The data are collected through the utilization of the developed questionnaire by using an interview technique after the estimation of the validity and reliability of the study instrument.

Results: the correlation between overall women's knowledge about ways of early detection and their demographic data, shows that overall women's knowledge has a significant positive correlation with each of age, family history of breast cancer, and level of education. The result also indicates that the correlation between causes for delay in seeking medical intervention and women demographic data. It shows that there is a significant positive correlation with each of residence and family history of breast cancer and most patients are delayed in seeking medicine because of lack of awareness and financial problems.

Conclusion: The study concluded that the general assessment is moderate knowledge about early detection of breast cancer among women, and found a significant relationship between family history and residence with knowledge of patient while there is no correlation with other demographic data.

Pathological risk factors related to mother during pregnancy that lead to epilepsy in children

Halah Mohammed; Asmaa Tarek Kadhim Al-Hakak

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 8-13
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.17159

Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder related to abnormal electrical activity in the brain. The current study aims to identify the risk factors associated with epilepsy among children related to mothers.
Methodology: A descriptive case-control study was adopted to achieve the stated objectives. An analytic case-control study, Non-Probability (a Purposive Sample) of (100) women of Children with epilepsy as the case group, and (100) women of healthy children without epilepsy as a control group. The reliability of the instrument is determined using Cronbach Alpha, and the Validity of questionnaires was determined through a panel of experts. The data are analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.
Results: The study has shown that residency, mother exposure to domestic violence during pregnancy, mother exposure to an accident during pregnancy, and prolonged labor are significantly associated with epilepsy occurrence (the Odds ratio more than 1), so these factors are more likely to be risk factors associated with epilepsy occurrence.
Conclusion: The study concludes that among the risk factors associated with epilepsy for the present study were residency, exposure to domestic violence, exposure to the accident (car accident, trauma, fall), and prolonged labor.

Intersecting Epidemics of Many Unknowns: Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Covid-19

Tomy .A.D; Tai Chy

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 14-18
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.17450

Since July 2020, or around six months after the outbreak of the new coronavirus infection in 2019, no one has been able to explain why people with HIV (PLWH) are negatively affected (COVID-19). COVID-19 vulnerability appears to be the same in HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals, however, results may be inconsistent. Some of the misunderstandings are due to the lack of data and the novelty of COVID-19, while others are due to the ambiguity of the question "when?" It has the means to make HIV a "risk factor" for the development of COVID-19.

Discharge Plan for Mothers of Children Undergoing Congenital Heart Surgery

Michael P Doyle; M. Anthony McKervey

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 19-30
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.17688

Background: Congenital heart defect is the second cause of death in infancy and childhood and is the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Congenital heart surgery corrects a heart defect that a child is born with it.
 Aim: This study aimed at evaluating the effect of discharge plans for mothers and their children undergoing congenital heart surgery. setting: this study was conducted at the outpatient clinic of Cardio Vascular and Thoracic Academy Ain Shams University Hospitals. Sample: 70 mothers and their children undergoing congenital heart surgery were included in this study.
Tools of data collection: two different tools were used. First tool: consists of interviewing questionnaire to asssocio-demographic his characteristics of mothers and their children, knowledge, reported practices of mothers for their children undergoing congenital heart surgery, Second tool: Assessment of child health status.
Result: revealed that 81.4% of the studied mothers achieved poor knowledge scores in the pre-implementation phase, it improved to 92.9% of them achieved well in the post-implementation phase. Only 18.6% & 7.1% of them achieved average in both the pre-and post-implementation phase respectively and 91.4% of the study sample's total mothers’ practice was unsatisfactory in the pre-implementation phase, but 97.1% of them were satisfactory in the post-implementation phase.
Conclusion: there was a strong statistically significant correlation between the mother's total knowledge and total reported practices score on the post-test (P<0.00**).
Recommendation: Comprehensive, multidisciplinary discharge planning should design early and should include the mothers and children contain education regarding congenital heart surgery care.

Secondary Metabolism Compounds Study of Essential Oils for the Mentha spicata L. and Ocimum basilicum L.

Raghad Khalil Alarkwazi; Gasaq Reaihd Abdulreda; Ali Salam Ali

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 31-37
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.18906

Background: The mint and basil plants (M. spicata L. and O. basilicum L.) of the labiate family were used in the study.
Methods: A qualitative chemical detection regarding several active chemicals in the leaves of M. spicata L. and O. basilicum L. was part of the investigation.
Results: The findings revealed that both species include flavonoids and glycosides, yet tannins and saponins were not found in the leaves extract of O. basilicum, and volatile oils were found in the alcoholic extract at a rate of 4.5% in the leaves of O. basilicum. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) was used to detect six chemical active groups include (O-H, C=H, C=C, C=N, C-O, C-N). Our findings revealed the presence of alkaloid; the extraction yield for volatile oils in M. spicata species is 3%. As for the presence of nutrients in the type, the highest percentage of Calcium is in species O. basilicum.
Conclusions: The presence of effective chemical compounds in O. basilicum and M. spicata leaves indicates its importance as a source of useful drugs and the importance of chemical components in the pharmaceutical industries, as well as enhancing the importance of its use in folk medicine as a safe treatment for many diseases.