Document Type : Original article


1 Medical and Health Technical College, Southern Technical University, Iraq

2 Basrah University Teaching Hospital, Iraq.


Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease CKD cause different GFR declines (AKI). A gradual, irreversible decline in GFR is a CKD symptom. Diseases impair the kidneys’ ability to concentrate or dilute tubular filtrate, eliminate nitrogenous waste, and maintain acid-base balance. Acute kidney failure (AKF) is a sudden, reversible renal function loss requiring RRT. Chronic kid- ney disease has a 13.4% global prevalence and 1.2 million annual deaths.
The Aim Serum creatinine, urea, potassium, chloride, calcium, sodium, and serum uric acid in CKD patients and healthy controls, and how these indicators vary with CKD development.
Determination of some trace elements such as copper, zinc, and iron in the sera of patients.
Materials and Methods The study included (30 healthy participants) and (60) patients with CKD (control). The participants in this study were people who traveled to Basrah Teaching Hospital aged 25 to 65. From Octo- ber 2020 to February 2021, specialized physicians examined each participant in this study at Basrah Teaching Hospital. Serum potassium, sodium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, urea, uric acid, and serum creatinine were measured using kits.
Results The current study results have shown a signif- icant increase (P < 0.01) in the following biomarkers in CKD patients: serum creatinine, urea, phosphorus, chlo- ride, uric acid, and Cystatin-C. The results also showed a significant decrease in levels following biomarkers in CKD patients: serum calcium and sodium.
Conclusion Chronic renal disease raises serum creati- nine, urea, potassium, chloride, and uric acid. Chronic renal disease patients had lower calcium and sodium levels.


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