1 University of AL-Qadisiyah; Collage of Medicine
2 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Al Diwaniyah, Iraq
Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a national pandemic for more than 2 years, and it continues to have an unimaginable impact on our way of life and quality of life. It is critical to gain a deeper understanding of how immunity is regulated in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The C-reactive.protein.(CRP) was the first acute phase protein to be identified, and it serves as a highly sensitive systemic indication of tissue damage, infection, as well as inflammation. Smooth muscle cells, lymphocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells, and adipocytes are all involved in the production of this protein. Interleukin.10.(IL-10), commonly described as human. cytokine.synthesis.inhibitory.factor (CSIF). The IL-10 gene in humans produces interleukin 10, a pleiotropic cytokine with strong anti-inflammatory as well as immunosuppressive activities.
The Aim the aim of this study is to evaluate the vaccine effectiveness using diagnostic biochemical markers.
Material and method this study included 125 patients (56 males and 69 females) with vaccinated and non-vaccinated COVID-19 with an age range of 20–70 years. These patients are divided into two main groups: 1. vaccinated (vaccinated with COVID-19 infection, vaccinated without COVID-19 disease, vaccinated recovered
from the CoV-19 virus), 2. Unvaccinated (infected with the CoV-19 virus and non-vaccinated, recovered from COVID-19 and unvaccinated). The outcome is measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. This study was conducted during the period from November 2021 to May 2022 at Al-Shifaa medical center and the vaccine unit at Al-Diwaniyah Educational Hospital, Diwaniyah governorate, Iraq.
Results The results showed an increase in CRP level for the vaccinated groups was significantly higher (P<0.0001) in group G2 (vaccinated with COVID) more than in G1 (vaccinated without COVID) and G3 (vaccinated recovered COVID). For non-vaccinated groups, it was significantly higher (P<0.01) in group G4 (no vaccine with COVID) more than in group G5 (no vaccine recovered COVID). The results also showed that the IL-10 in the 2nd and 4th weeks after vaccination had a higher level in G1 (vaccinated without COVID) and G2 (vaccinated with COVID) than in any other time incident. For G4 (no vaccine with COVID) showed that a significant increase was noticed in the 2nd week after diagnosis more than other time incidents. While G3 (vaccinated recovered COVID), G5 (no vaccine recovered COVID) showed that no significant increase was noticed among the different time incidents.
Conclusion the use of mRNA for CoV-19 vaccination significantly modulates the increment of C-reactive protein and interleukin-10 and improves the immune response in patients with COVID-19 infection.