Volume 1, Issue 2, Summer 2022, Page 1-40

Study of the Bacterial Sensitivity to different Antibiotics which are isolated from patients with UTI using Kirby-Bauer Method

Yousif Sinan Alhamadani; Aamir Oudah

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.19387

Background: The Aim of the study was to determine the sensitivity of different types of bacteria to 30 different types of antibiotics by using Kirby-Bauer Method.
Methods: The study was conducted in December 2021 and January 2022, in Al-Samawah city. Where the study was conducted on 33 patients from both genders suffering from urinary tract infection, urine samples were collected using (First morning specimen), Where the chemical tests were carried out before the process of urine culturing by using petri dishes than bacterial species were isolated and their sensitivity to different antibiotics was determined.
Results: Staphylococcus aureus showed sensitivity to different antibiotics where the most effective antibiotic were Imipenem (100%). E. coli showed sensitivity to Amikacin, Imipenem and Meropenem by (100%). For Proteus mirabilis the most effective antibiotics were Amikacin, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Imipenem and Meropenem by (100%). For Streptococcus pyogenes the most effective antibiotics were Amikacin, Ciproflaxcine, Doxycycline, Imipenem, Meropenem, Norfloxacin, Rifampicin, Levofloxacin and Tetracycline (100%) and for Staphylococcus epidermidi were Cefepime, Norfloxacin, Nitrofurantoin, Piperacillin, Rifampicin, Gentamycin, Trimethoprim, Tobramycin and Levofloxacin (100%) and for Enterococcus faecalis were Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Imipenem, Rifampicin and Meropenem (100%).
Conclusions: The current study shows Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli to be the most common pathogens in our study, with very high antibiotic sensitivities to Amikacin, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Imipenem and Meropenem and according to the C&S results.

The use of collagen type-II as an indicator for assessment regeneration effect post intra-articular pure-PRP injection in KOA patient

Ajil A. Alzamily; Waleed M. Jifeel

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 7-14
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.19388

Background: knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a complex disease that causes metabolic, structural, biochemical, and functional alterations in afflicted tissues. Physical examination and radiological findings are the present methods for the diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis. Traditionally, KOA medication focused on symptom management. Clinical trials focused on delaying or reversing disease development have gained popularity in recent years. PRP is among the medicinal approaches used to manage KOA.Purpose: By assessing the cartilage degradation marker collagen-II, the study's aim was to figure out whether the use of pure-PRP may help KOA patients' damaged cartilage layers regenerate.
Methods: This non-randomized controlled trial study involved 66 patients with knee OA and 28 healthy control subjects from December 2021 to February 2022. There were 2 categories of knee OA patients: 34 with moderate (grade-3) and 32 with mild (grade-2) KOA. So, every group of KOA patients is divided into three subgroups based to the frequency of injections (single, double, or triple) in addition to severity. Based on clinical and radiological data using the Kellgren-Lawence (KL) 0–4 grading system, the patients' diagnoses and classifications are made. This study was designed at AL-Imam Ali hospital, Babylon governorate, Iraq and approved by the medical human research ethics committee at Al-Qadisiyah university/ collage of medicine.
Results: The findings of this investigation show that the serum collagen type-II content was considerably greater in KOA patients were compared to control subjects, and in moderate compared to mild KOA as the severity of the disease progressed. But following pure-PRP injection, the serum level of collagen type-II did not significantly decrease, and increasing the number of injections had no better effect.
Conclusions: PRP therapy was generally acceptable for patients in terms of improving symptoms and there were no complications following injection. However, there is insufficient indication that platelet rich plasma regenerates cartilage damage in knee OA patients, as there was no significant decrease in the amount of collagen type-II.

Evaluation of some cardiac markers in relation to COVID-19 mRNA vaccine

Buthainah Al-Azzawi; Ahmed Kareem AL-Eqabi

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 15-24
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.19395

Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a dangerous cardiovascular illness that has a significant impact on people's health. Several biomarkers, including Myoglobin and troponin I (cTnI) were utilized to diagnose AMI in recent decades. The Troponin I (cTnI) was designated as the "gold standard" cardiac biomarker for the prediction of cardiomyopathy. It's a heart muscle regulating protein found on normal myocyte actin filaments. When cardiac muscles are injured, cTnI, one of the main subunits of the cardiac troponin complex, is released into the circulation (e.g., myocardial infarction). Myoglobin denoted by (symbols Mb and MB) seems to be an iron- and o2-binding protein present in the vertebrate heart and skeletal muscle tissues and, more specifically, nearly all mammals. In humans, MB is only present in the bloodstream following muscle damage. Its primary function is to supply myocytes with oxygen. Also essential to nitric oxide hemostasis was myoglobin. Additionally, it facilitates the detoxification of response oxygen molecules from the body. MB is accountable for most vertebrate muscles' red hue.The aim: To assess the difference in the level of (MYOGLOBIN and TROPONIN_I) between patients with and without mRNA Vaccination.
Methods: This study included 125 patients (65 male and 60 female) with vaccinated and non-vaccinated covid-19 with an age range of 20–69 years. These patients are divided into two main groups: 1. vaccinated (vaccinated with COVID-19 infection, vaccinated without COVID-19 disease, vaccinated recovered from the CoV-19 virus),2. unvaccinated (infected with the CoV-19 virus and non-vaccinated, recovered from covid-19 and unvaccinated). The outcome is measured using the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. This study was conducted during the period from November 2021 to May 2022 at the Martyr Dr. Fairouz General Hospital, Wasit governorate, Iraq.
Results: Estimation of serum Troponin I and Myoglobin concentration showed that concentrations of Troponin I and Myoglobin were significantly higher (P<0.0001) in individuals infected with CoV-19 virus and unvaccinated higher than vaccinated with CoV-19 disease indicating the impact of the vaccine on the increment of both markers. However, the level of each marker was substantially higher (P<0.0001) in vaccinated with CoV-19 infection more than vaccinated without or recovered from COVID-19 illness.
Conclusions: The use of mRNA CoV-19 vaccination significantly modulate the increment of Troponin I and Myoglobin and improves the cardiac symptomatology in patients with CoV-19 infection.

The Significant Relationship between A Prostatitis and A High Level of Glycated hemoglobin in Non-Insulin dependent Diabetes Mellitus in AL-Diwaniah Province

Aqeel kareem; Ali Hadi Sabhan

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 25-28
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.5455.1007

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) on the serum level of prostatespecific antigen.
Background: Prostatitis is an inflammation of prostate gland ; several kinds chronic (nonbacterial) prostatitis and sever(chronic) bacterial prostatitis, pelvic pain syndrome. Glycated Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been widely recognized as a biomarker predictor for the severity of Diabetes Mellitus(DM). Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) is a pivotal biomarker reflecting both fasting and postprandial plasma glucose concentration over the preceding 120 days. Increasing epidemiologic evidence suggests that diabetes and associated hyperglycemia and
insulin resistance significantly increase the risks of BPH and LUTS.
Method: A total of 175 blood samples were tested for Glycated hemoglobin with high R.B. Sugar and PSA level.(HbA1c )might have been quantified by (I Chroma 11 and ELISA).
Results: One Hundred Seventy Five patients aged( 22 – 70 ± 10 years) with Type 2 DM, were studied who have signs of prostatitis inflammation ,100 under study and 75 control group.
Conclusion: A significant association between poor glycemic
control and high PSA level of prostatitis among diabetic patients

Estimation of some Bioactive substances and Antibacterial activity of Zingiber officinale (Ginger) Extract

Shahbaa M. Al-khazraji; Madeha H. Hossain; Ali S. Hassoon

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 29-33
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.5544.1017

The methalonic and equeous extracts of ginger were employed in this investigation for antibacterial activity against both gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus). Agar disk diffusion was used to assess growth inhibition. The two extracts had clear antibacterial action against the microorganisms tested. In the growth of tested bacteria, the methalonic extract outperformed the equeous extract. The maximum zone of inhibition of methalonic extract in the development of S. aureus (16 mm) and the lowest zone of inhibition in the growth of E. coli (13 mm). The impact of equeous extract on the growth of two bacteria ranged between 10 mm in E. coli and 14 mm in S. aureus. Two extracts' antibacterial activity was compared to that of Gentamicin, a popular antibiotic (20 mm).

Assessment of Fatigue among Patients with Cancer at Euphrates Cancer Hospital

Zainab Hamed Abdel-Hussein; Fatima Wanas Khdair; Ali Al-fahhan

Journal of Biomedicine and Biochemistry, 2022, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 34-40
DOI: 10.57238/jbb.2022.5278.1002

Background: Fatigue is a condition characterized by a subjective feeling of a decrease in energy, and it has both physical and psychological aspects. Many authors have pointed out the overlap between fatigue and depression.
Methods: A Descriptive correlational Design is used to study the relationships between the variables and how such relationships are analyzed to assess the research objectives. The study is conducted throughout the period of October 20 th 2021 to 15st June 2022. A Non-Probability (Purposive Sample) of (250) cancer patients, those who visited Al-Euphrates Cancer Hospital/ Al-Najaf/Chemotherapy and hormonal ,Radiation ,Surgery for treatment or follow up or both, are included in the study sample.The data are collected through the utilization
of the developed questionnaire by using an interview technique after the estimation of the validity and reliability of the study instrument.
Result: the overall assessment was (high) for the domains (physical fatigue) and (moderate) for the domain (mental fatigue). The overall assessment of fatigue is also (moderate). In addition, other variables were studied and the study found a significant relationship between educational level, the monthly income/IQ, occupation, residence, cancer type on the patient’s fatigue. Conclusion: Overall the patients with cancer exhibited
a high percentage of physical fatigue and a moderate percentage of mental fatigue. In addition, other variables were studied and the study found a significant relationship between educational level, the monthly income/IQ, occupation, residence, cancer type on the patient’s fatigue.